Updated by Syd Mitchell in January, 2021.
This e-book is appropriate reading for any pond keeper interested in learning how Koi feeding and pond volume affect turnover rate calculations.
This paper shows how to calculate turnover rates to reduce ammonia when you know pond volume, Koi weight, and the protein percentage in Koi food. Several different cases are included for the example so that the reader can see how altering one factor changes the required turnovers.
Koi Keepers reading this E-book will become familiar with:
The mechanisms by which heat is exchanged with the atmosphere
- What is pond turnover
- How to calculate pond volume
- Why pond volume is important
- Why turnover is important
- TAN vs free ammonia
- How amount of ammonia produced is calculated depending on variables
- Turnover rates required to reduce ammonia