It's that time of year again! There are some wonderful Koi gifts available - check out this random selection...
This article is about size change in fish do to global warming, but has an excellent description of why larger Koi require more O2 than smaller Koi.
Read this synopsis of a study that showed the benefits of Koi getting some sun near the surface.
This is not a research paper, but a synopsis of a recent (Jan 28 2019) work done by New York University on how fish school.
This is an excellent study on the physical effects of stress on fish. It documents visible changes to the gills, heart and other organs.
If you have chlorine or chloramine treated water, K.O.I. has always recommended the use of a water shut off timer whenever doing a pond refill. In fact, they are so cheap (and they do sometimes fail, that Spike now recommends using 2 of them, one after the other.
But there is another way that doesn't involve the use of ANY device. Read what the Fish Vet in Australia recommends.
Likelihood of success if you have a pond or Koi problem...
!If you're not havin' FUN, you're not doin' it right