Koi on the list of 100 Most Invasive Species

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Koi on the list of 100 Most Invasive Species

November 27, 2015 - 15:32

Please help K.O.I. to spread the word – Koi should never be released into the wild!  Nearly every Koi club in the country will help you deal with unwanted Koi.  Please contact your local club and deal with unwanted Koi responsibly by re-homing them, or euthanizing them.

Here’s the list of top 100 invasive species:   http://www.issg.org/worst100_species.html

Click on the picture or title to read what they say about the environmental impact of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

C. carpio is the third most frequently introduced species world-wide (Welcomme 1992, in Saikia & Das 2009). On every continent where it has been introduced it has reduced water quality and degraded aquatic habitats (McCrimmon 1968, Roberts et al. 1995, King et al. 1997, Koehn et al. 2000, in Jones & Stuart 2006).
Ecosystem Change: In shallow aquatic ecosystems, common carp can be considered “ecosystem engineers” or “keystone modifiers” (Jones et al. 1994, Mills et al. 1993, in Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003) in that they have strong effects on benthic communities.
Aquatic macrophytes are integral to ecosystem functioning (Stansfield et al. 1997, in Nunn et al. 2007). Carp are known to damage aquatic macrophytes.
Macrophytes are keystone species in aquatic ecosystems (Scheffer 1998, Scheffer et al. 2001, in Shin-ichiro et al 2009). Shin-ichiro and colleagues (2009) found carp significantly influenced benthic macroinvertebrates.
Habitat Alteration: Carp may pose a threat to wetlands that are used by many fish as spawning and nursery habitats (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003).
Modification of natural benthic communities: Carp are believed to stimulate algal bloom formation by increasing nutrient release from sediments and decreasing algal grazing by cladocerans (which the juvenile carp prey upon) (Pinto et al. 2005).
Modification of nutrient regime: Carp increase nutrients in the water column in two ways: by sediment resuspension and by excretion (Lamarra 1975, Brabrand et al. 1990, in Chumchal 2002).
Reduction in native biodiversity: In California, USA, carp have been implicated in the gradual disappearance of native fishes (Moyle 1976a, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Data from Miller and Crowl (2006) suggests that carp can significantly affect species abundance and diversity of macrophytes and some macroinvertebrates. Common carp negatively affected macrophyte abundance by reduction of light availability, increase of siltation rates, ingestion of plant matter and uprooting during feeding activity (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003).
The loss of rooted macrophytes due to carp activity is intuitively likely to lead to a decline in biological diversity, in endemic fish, amphibians, and reptiles in Mexico (Crowder & Painter 1991, in Zambrano et al. 1999) and elsewhere.
Physical disturbance: Carp stir up bottom sediments during feeding, resulting in increased siltation and bioturbidity (Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003; Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003; Lee et al. 1980, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Threat to endangered species: Non-native fish can drive native species to local extinction (Zambrano et al. 2006).Predation: Carp prey on macroinvertebrtes (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003). There is also evidence that common carp prey on the eggs of other fish species (Moyle 1976a, Taylor et al. 1984, Miller & Beckman 1996, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Competition: Laird and Page (1996, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009) stated that common carp may compete with ecologically similar species such as carp suckers and buffalo fish.
Economic/Livelihoods: Growth rates and stocks of other fish may be impacted by competition with carp (Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003), including perch. Carp provide an important source of protein in some third world countries (FishBase 2009).
Human nuisance: By stirring up river substrate and reducing aquatic vegetation carp can makes waterways unattractive and can render the water unsuitable for swimming or for drinking by livestock (NIWA 2003).

Read the full page about carp at:

http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=60&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN

 


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