Feed - Food, Feeding

Okay, will someone tell me how to make this food.
 
Veterinarians from RUDN University have developed a way to increase the resistance of carp, the most common fish in fish farms, to the harmful effects of ammonia, which is found in almost all water bodies. The researchers found that the amino acid arginine added to fish food can be helpful. The results are published in the journal Aquaculture.
 
Method to protect carp from the harmful effects of ammonia (phys.org)

Another story on fishless fish food. 
 
After six years of research, a team of scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz has developed a cost-effective new aquaculture feed that eliminates conventional fish meal and fish oil ingredients while also providing better fish weight gain and higher nutritional value in the filet for humans. The new fish-free feed is the first to demonstrate across-the-board gains in sustainability, performance, economic viability, and human health.
 

Insects are now in dog food, is it in your koi food now?
This past Tuesday (June 11), Dutch company Protix opened the world’s largest insect farm in Bergem op Zoom, a small town in the south of the Netherlands.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidebanis/2019/06/14/can-using-insects-as...

A new trend of replacing fish in fish feed, to substituting insects. 
 
French insect farming startup insect is building the world’s largest insect farm in Amiens, north of Paris. Set to open in fall 2022, per TechCrunch, the facility will focus on raising mealworm beetles — specifically their larvae— for commercial uses, including fertilizer and as food for pets and aquaculture.
https://www.freethink.com/articles/insect-farming

I wonder when we will see nuts in our koi feed?
 
Thanks to researchers at the Agricultural Research Service, a new feed ingredient made from tree nuts is available to fish farmers.
As the aquaculture (fish or shellfish farming) industry grows, so does the need for fish feed that's not dependent on the stagnant supply of fish meal made from captured marine fish protein and oils.
https://federallabs.org/news/fish-go-nuts-over-new-feed-ingredient

This info about Koi is from  Schäperclause, W.  Fish Diseases, Vol.1, 1991. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. p.195 & 198.

Recently the question was asked about how much does a Koi weigh that is a certain length?  Here are some thoughts, and a few charts...

This study looks at the effect of feeding Azomite (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, a natural trace mineral product) to Koi.  They found that it improved both growth and the immune response.

I found this study while researching for an article on nutrition.  This work was done in 2015, and specifies the number of times to feed per day, the amount and the protein levels for various stages of development in carp (they also cover catfish and prawns).  In many parts of the world, carp is an extremely important protein source and they are thus raised commercially.  As hobbyists, we can certainly learn a lot from these types of studies where the researchers want to understand how to maximize growth in an environment where there is little natural food in the pond.

This is an excellent study that evaluated changing out fish meal for plant proteins on carp (Cyprinus carpio) of various ages.  The researchers evaluated growth rates using various proteins and various amounts of protein.  Reading this will help you understand how to better evaluate the labels on Koi food bags.

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